The history of constantinople

Vitellius 69 The Roman Empire "officially" begins by tradition in 27 BC when Octavian receives the title "Augustus" -- which then becomes the name by which we know him.

The history of constantinople

The Sultan's life was run by rituals copied from the Byzantine court. For example, the Sultan wore his silk robes once and then they were The history of constantinople.

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Many now are preserved in the Topkapi Musuem. The Topkapi Palace held many objects which were used to give legitimacy to the Ottomans and reinforce the Sultan's claim to be leader of all Muslims. The most important of these was the mantle of the Prophet Muhammad and his standard and footprint.

These were brought from Egypt when Cairo fell to the Ottomans. It was in the Harem that the Sultan spent his life. Every inhabitant of the small dark rooms in the Topkapi palace was his to command.

Constantine the Great reunited the Roman Empire under his sole rule in after he defeated Licinius. This ended 20 years of civil war that broke out after the abdication of Diocletian. Constantine would rule over the united Roman Empire from to his death in By Peter Tsouras 4/13/ • HistoryNet. The “fury of the Northmen” hit the Byzantine Empire in a surprise attack on the Queen of Cities. Byzantine Emperor Theophilus was gracious in his treatment of the two ambassadors who had arrived unexpectedly in the imperial capital, Constantinople, from the Black Sea in the year Constantinople, from History of the Later Roman Empire, by J.B. Bury History of Constantinople from the "New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia." Monuments of Byzantium – Pantokrator Monastery of Constantinople.

The number of concubines often exceeded a thousand and came from all over the world. The only permanent male staff consisted of eunuchs.

The history of constantinople

Access to the Sultan meant power. But no one was to be trusted. The Sultan moved every night to avoid assassination. Favoured males were promoted to rule places far away like Syria; males not in favour could be locked up inside the palace. The harem was a paradox, since it was a feature of the Ottoman Empire and other Islamic states yet contained much that was not permissible in Islam.

The harem was extravagant, decadent, and vulgar. The concentration of wealth, suffering and injustice toward women was far from the ideals of marriage and married life in Islam.

Despite this, the harem could bring benefits to a family who had a woman in the harem.

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It meant patronage, wealth and power; it meant access to the most powerful man in the Empire - the Sultan. Influences and Structure Although the Ottoman Empire was widely influenced by the faiths and customs of the peoples it incorporated, the most significant influences came from Islam.

The ruling elite worked their way up the hierarchy of the state madrassahs religious schools and the palace schools. They were trained to be concerned with the needs of government and to be mindful of the restrictions of Islamic law. In its structure the ruling elite reflected a world of order and hierarchy in which promotion and status were rewarded on merit.

Thus birth and genealogy, aristocracy or tribe became almost irrelevant to success in the system. Only one post, that of the Sultan, was determined by birth.

Early history of Byzantium

Suleiman came to the throne as one of the wealthiest rulers in the world. His strength owed much to the work his father Selim had done in stabilising government, removing opposition, frightening but not succesfully conquering the Safavid Empire of Iran into adopting a non-aggression policy, and conquering the Mamluk empire of Egypt and Syria.

These conquests, which united the lands of Eastern Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean under a single ruler, brought a time of peace and stability, under which the Empire flourished.

Suleiman had no internal rivals for power. His father had seen to that by executing his own brothers and their sons, and all 4 of Suleiman's brothers. The Ottoman Empire now included so much of the territory where Islam was practiced, and so many of the Islamic holy places, that Suleiman was widely regarded as the religious leader of Islam, as well as the earthly ruler of most Muslims.

Short-termism Ottoman rulers had a very short-term policy. They rejected the idea of developing territory and investing in it for gain at some time in the future; land and peoples were exploited to the point of exhaustion and then more or less abandoned in favour of new ground.

This policy meant that the Ottoman Empire relied on continuous expansion for stability. If it did not grow, it was likely to collapse. Decline Decline The power of the empire was waning by when the second and last attempt was made to conquer Vienna. Without the conquest of Europe and the acquisition of significant new wealth the Empire lost momentum and went into a slow decline.

The history of constantinople

Several other factors contributed to the Empire's decline: This led Turks like Kemal Ataturk, who was born late in the nineteenth century, to be repelled by the Ottoman Turkish political system and the culture it had evolved. Seeing little but decay and corruption, he led the Turks to create a new modern identity.

The empire officially ended on the 1st Novemberwhen the Ottoman sultanate was abolished and Turkey was declared a republic. The Ottoman caliphate continued as an institution, with greatly reduced authority, until it too was abolished on the 3rd March Istanbul: Istanbul, largest city and principal seaport of Turkey.

Historically known as Byzantium and then Constantinople, it was the capital of the Byzantine Empire and the Ottoman Empire. Istanbul straddles the Bosporus strait, one of two waterways that separates the European and Asian parts of Turkey.

The Bishops of Rome, the Popes; the Patriarchs of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, Armenia, and the East; Archbishops of Canterbury and Prince Archbishops of .

The city today known as Istanbul has been the site of human settlement for approximately three thousand years.

The settlement was founded by Thracian tribes between the 13th and 11th centuries BC, [verification needed] whose earliest known name is Lygos.

It was colonised by the Greeks in the 7th century BC. It fell to the Roman Republic in AD , and was known as Byzantium until , when it.

Constantinople would become the economic and cultural hub of the east and the center of both Greek classics and Christian ideals. Find out more about the history of Constantinople, including videos, interesting articles, pictures, historical features and more.

Get all the facts on mtb15.com The Byzantine Empire. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. The very name Byzantine illustrates the misconceptions to which the empire’s history has often been subject, for its inhabitants would hardly have considered the term appropriate to themselves or to their state.

Theirs was, in their view, none other than the Roman Empire, founded shortly before the beginning of the Christian era by God’s.

Decline of an Empire: The Fourth Crusade’s Sacking of Constantinople